Marriage Fears

Ashin Mirathu, a prominent anti-Muslim Buddhist monk.

Ashin Wirathu, a prominent anti-Muslim monk, has been called by Time Magazine “The Face of Buddhist Terror.”

In her book Founders of Faith, Joan A. Price recounts the final moments in the life of Siddhartha Gautama, better known as the Buddha. Just before his death, it is told that the Buddha said to the people gathered around his deathbed, “Work out your own salvation with diligence.” This was his final message in a life spent seeking knowledge and espousing a message of nonviolence, tolerance, and living at peace with yourself and fellow human beings. This message was the core of the faith founded on his teachings, Buddhism.

But as often happens, the pure ideals of ancient faiths and philosophies don’t fit well with the complicated realities of the world. Such has been the case in the country of Burma (also known as Myanmar), where tensions between the population of Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims have escalated to violence. (Burmese peace icon Aung San Suu Kyi has been particularly criticized for her failure to speak or take action on this issue.)

Most recently, the conflict has taken a turn away from violence, but taken an equally insidious form: social control. Buddhist monks in Burma have drafted a law banning marriage between Buddhists and Muslims. Though Burma is in the process of transitioning to civilian control after decades of authoritarian military rule, this extreme measure is decidedly reminiscent of the heavy handed tactics favored by totalitarian regimes, not to mention that the notion of the state mandating people’s lives seems to be in contrast with the values of Buddhism. How can one follow the path of personal enlightenment if the state is dictating your path?

This news about restricting marriage comes at a time when Americans are in the midst of an unprecedented debate about marriage rights as well. The U.S. Supreme Court recently handed down a ruling allowing same-sex marriage in states that allowed it, and striking down a part of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) that denied federal benefits to same-sex couples.  Though these rulings didn’t fully legalize gay marriage (that still happens on a state by state basis), the ruling was still a major victory for gay rights activists and paves the way for same sex marriage.

This ruling has been justly celebrated (in contrast to a Supreme Court ruling that came just a day earlier, in which the court chose to largely cripple the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the consequences of which are yet to be seen), but many were angered by the Court’s decision. Like the monks in Burma, this group of activists sees a great danger to society if a certain type of marriage is allowed.

Why exactly? It’s tough to say. But it’s hard not to see a common and key motivating factor being fear; the fear that allowing certain types of marriage–between a Buddhist and a Muslim, between two people of the same sex, or as often used to be the case, between people of different races–will implicitly damage society, even if there is no evidence to support such fear. And this fear, unfortunately, often causes people to act out in ways that inspire fear and create oppression, ways that seem to violate the spirit of the faith and ideals these people are purporting to protect.

To learn more about the Buddha and the founding of the Buddhist faith, as well the founding of Christianity, Islam, and many other religions, check out World Religions and Beliefs: Founders of Faith by Joan A. Price (ISBN# 978-1-59935-147-6) from your local library, or purchase it from Morgan Reynolds Publishing.

-Josh Barrer,

Associate Editor

Published in: on July 11, 2013 at 2:42 pm  Leave a Comment  
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Aung San Suu Kyi And The Challenge of Living Up To An Ideal

Aung San Suu Kyi meets with protesters.

Aung San Suu Kyi (right) meets with protesters.

Aung San Suu Kyi, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate who has spent much of her adult life (including twenty years spent mostly under house arrest) opposing Burma’s totalitarian military rule, is learning a hard lesson about the conflict between idealism and politics.

Affectionately called “The Lady,” or “Mother Suu,”  Suu Kyi is largely beloved in her home country. A leading activist for democracy in Burma (also called Myanmar), as well as the daughter of the famed general who led the fight for Burmese independence in 1947, Suu Kyi has long been revered by her countrymen, even idolized. The sacrifices she willingly made for her belief in a free and democratic Burma–living in house arrest, being separated from her children and dying husband, refusing to leave Burma for fear of permanent exile–have only endeared her more to the people she represents.

Her release from house arrest in 2010 and election to Burma’s parliament in 2012 were triumphant moments in her lifelong struggle. Forced to the sidelines by the oppressive government for so long, Suu Kyi would finally be able to be directly involved in shaping her country’s future. But dealing with the complex world of politics has seemingly put Suu Kyi in compromising positions, caught between her need to work within an imperfect system and the hopes of those who view her as a pure symbol of Burmese freedom.

Her current predicament is centered around protests over a proposed copper mine expansion in the Letpadaung Mountain region. The mine is a joint venture between Burma’s military and wealthy Chinese investors, and protesters argue that it greatly pollutes the local land and displaces farmers, while providing few new jobs or economic benefits to offset the damage. As protests to the mine grew in intensity, Burma’s president, Thein Sein, put Suu Kyi in charge of investigating the issue. When Suu Kyi ultimately sided with the government and mine owners, asking the protesters to cease, she earned the wrath of people in the affected villages, as well as Burmese journalists and commentators.

Suu Kyi’s position is a complex one. Opposing the mine expansion would anger China, Burma’s top foreign investor. Even worse, it could seriously hurt relations between the military and the civilian government- the alliance on which the move towards a truly free Burma is built. Suu Kyi has also argued that profits from the mine might, over time, help offset its immediate damages to the Letpadaung area and villages. But for the people in the villages whose homes are threatened by the mine, these considerations aren’t enough. They only see their former idol turning on them.

Unfortunately, it’s not the first time Suu Kyi has been forced to compromise. Despite vows to not take the oath of office for parliament until some troublesome wording in the oath was altered, Suu Kyi did indeed recite the oath and take office. And she received criticism for largely remaining silent in regards to the Rakhine State riots, in which violent conflicts between Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims left 88 people dead and some 90,000 people displaced.

In short, the idealized reality of Aung San Suu Kyi–symbol of freedom–is at odds with the often dirty business of politics. In some ways, Suu Kyi’s struggles to reconcile her symbolic status with the more complex reality of governing is reminiscent of the struggles of Barack Obama. During the 2008 presidential election, Obama was seen as a symbol of hope and change for many. But once elected, Obama frequently found himself caught up in politics, negotiating with his opponents to affect reforms that often ended up seeming compromised and lacking. As such, many Obama supporters turned against him, feeling Obama failed to live up to the promises he was revered for.

That position is understandable, but it’s also important to remember that even the best people are imperfect, and that politics and governing is a complex and often ugly business, one in which it’s impossible to please everyone, and compromise is unfortunately required for any progress to be made. It’s a tough lesson to take, especially when dealing with figures like Suu Kyi and Obama who inspire such passion.  But for better or worse, even the most idealized and beloved are unable to remain untarnished in the eyes of their followers.

Regardless of this controversy, Aung San Suu Kyi will continue fighting for her country and beliefs, even if it means disappointing people. As she said in The New York Times, “I have never done anything just for popularity. Sometimes politicians have to do things that people dislike.”

To learn more about the life of Aung San Suu Kyi and her struggles to lead Burma to democracy, check out Champion of Freedom: Aung San Suu Kyi by Sherry O’Keefe (ISBN# 978-1-59935-168-1) from your local library, or purchase it from Morgan Reynolds Publishing.   To learn about other people who devoted their lives to the fight for freedom and justice, check out Morgan Reynolds Publishing’s acclaimed and award winning Champion of Freedom series, which in addition to Suu Kyi, features biographies of Nelson Mandela, Mohandas Gandhi, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer.

-Josh Barrer

Associate Editor

Published in: on March 21, 2013 at 12:44 pm  Leave a Comment  
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“Freedom and democracy are dreams you never give up.”-Aung San Suu Kyi

“Burma has a long and tortured history,” wrote Sherry O’Keefe in Champion of Freedom: Aung San Suu Kyi.

Much has changed in Burma (also known as Myanmar) over the course of the last century. It has been ruled by the British, then the Japanese, then it was taken over by General Ne Win and his military regime in 1962. All the while, the people of Burma have fought tooth and nail for democracy, and they have suffered for their efforts.

After the National League for Democracy (the NLD) was registered in Burma in 1988, the ruling military party, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (or the SLORC), attempted to censor and squash much of what the NLD was doing in order to maintain their control of the country. Censorship was not the worst of the NLD’s treatment, though. O’Keefe wrote:

They [the SLORC] apprehended the most loyal and able NLD supporters, usually students, and either imprisoned them or forced them to serve in ongoing wars against insurgent forces. While waiting to be shipped off to battlefronts, many students were subject to cruel forms of punishment, such as being stripped naked and herded around like animals. Others were brought to mine fields and forced to walk across them as human minesweepers.

But things have started to change for the small repressed country. Reuters reported, “While little has changed physically on Myanmar’s rutted streets, the government has seen a dramatic transformation the past six months. Last August, President Thein Sein, a former junta leader, stunned lawmakers in the capital Naypyitaw, urging them to pursue reforms, adopt good governance and do the unthinkable: freely voice opinions. Since then, hundreds of political prisoners have been freed.”

This past weekend, Burma and the rest of the world witnessed what seems to be democracy gaining another inch. Aung San Suu Kyi, beloved freedom-fighter and leader of the National League for Democracy, was, for the first time, allowed to openly move around the country campaigning for her party and its mission. Elections to Parliament are set to take place on April 1 of this year.

A year ago, that would have been “unthinkable,” the Associated Press reported. “The mere fact that Suu Kyi was able to speak openly in public… and her supporters were able to greet her en masse without fear of reprisal– was proof of dramatic progress itself.”

Suu Kyi told the burgeoning crowd of her supporters, “We will bring democracy to the country. We will bring rule of law . . . and we will see to it that repressive laws are repealed.”

Adrianne Loggins
Associate Editor

For more information about Aung San Suu Kyi and the history of Burma, check out Champion of Freedom: Aung San Suu Kyi by Sherry O’Keefe, a Morgan Reynolds title. (ISBN 9781599351681)

Published in: on February 2, 2012 at 11:20 am  Leave a Comment  
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